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翻译常识(七)2012.10.27

英、汉相同点:“主语+谓语+宾语”(SVO)或“施事+行为+受事”为基本语序

英、汉相异点:句内的语序的灵活性,以及定语、状语等次要成分位置的差异,汉译英需要调整语序句内主要成分位置的调整

沙发上坐着一个人。A man was sitting on a couch.

马可·波罗的中国之行,给他留下最深刻印象的是杭州西湖之秀美。The beauty of the West Lake in Hangzhou was what impressed Marco Polo most during his trip to China.

状语位置的调整 汉语状语的位置一般在主语和谓语之间,呈“主语→状语→谓语→宾语”模式;英语状语一般出现在宾语后的句尾,呈“主语→谓语→宾语→状语”模式。

1) 我们明天上午九时动身。We are going to start at nine tomorrow morning.

2) 这本书是三天前买的。The book was bought three days ago.

3) 他每晚都要看电视。He watches TV every evening.

4) 在机器中很多能量是由于部件之间的摩擦而损失的。In a machine a great deal of energy is lost because of the friction between its parts.

5) 他们很细心地观察化学变化。They observed the chemical reaction with great care.They observed with great care the chemical reaction.

6) 他们肩并肩地以疯狂速度向那座石塔奔去。They ran side by side at a fantastic speed towards the stone pagoda.Side by side and at a fantastic speed they ran towards the stone pagoda.Side by side they ran at a fantastic speed towards the stone pagoda.